August 25, 2012

Dover Castle

Dover Castle is one of the most powerful of castles of Western Europe. Many centuries, it is the guardian of the shortest sea route from England to the Continent. Its location on the shore of the Strait of Pas-de-Calais, between Britain and France gave Dover castle of great strategic importance. For a long time he was considered the "key to England" due to its strategic position on the island.

Attribution: Ron Strutt, License
Castle began to exist immediately before the beginning of our era. Moat protecting the castle, was dug up in the prehistoric Iron Age. After the arrival of the British Isles by the Romans in the 1st century AD on the site 
of the present town of Dover was founded a fortified settlement. Dover began to develop as a Roman port. To do this, in 50 AD, two lighthouses were built: one here and one in the Western Heights. Lighthouse, located on the territory of the castle, has been preserved to this day. In the Anglo-Saxon period, the lighthouse was attached to the church, and he began to serve the bell tower.

In 1066, William I the Conqueror during the invasion of England took the castle. From that time until October 1958 the castle is always guarded by an armed garrison - i.e. for 892 years. May 22, 1216 Castle was besieged by Louis VIII. The siege lasted three months, but the lock got only minor damage. October 14, 1216, Louis VIII signed a truce and returned to London.

Roman  Lighthouse
Attribution: Chris McKenna, License
Name: Dover Castle

Shire county:  Kent
Region:  South East

Country:  England
Sovereign state: United Kingdom

Type:    Norman castle
Material: Brick 

Start of construction: 1st century AD
Condition:  opened to the public

During the Middle Ages, the castle served as border fortress facing the hostile lands of the Counts of Flanders and the kings of France. Henry II gave to the castle concentric defensive form that includes successive walls and towers. This was a novelty in the fortifications, which had no parallel in Europe. In 1216, Dover successfully withstood a long siege.
By 1250 his protective constructions have purchased the scale and forms that shape current appearance of Dover Castle, which has always been a one of the symbols of royal power.
In the 16th century, when the development of artillery defensive importance of the castle began to decline and Dover upgraded. During the XVII century, the English Revolution in 1642, the castle was in the hands of supporters of the king, but was captured by deceit of of  Parliamentarian without firing a shot. Mainly because of this castle survived almost intact to the present.
During both world wars, fire arms of the castle was upgraded. In 1939, during the Second World War, the tunnels were first converted to the shelter, and then the command center and underground hospital. In 1940, Admiral Bertram Ramsay managed the evacuation of British and French troops from Dunkirk (Operation Dynamo) is from the underground tunnels at Dover Castle.

Attribution:  Webzooloo from France,  License
Nowadays Dover castle is a huge museum, which attracts tourists from all over the world to experience the reign of the kings of England. And also, to see another miracle of Dover, i.e., chalk cliffs are visible for many miles from the open sea, their dazzling whiteness was the first sign of approaching England for generations of sailors.

 In the preparation of this article, were partially used materials of websites: and

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