December 17, 2012

Hohenwerfen Castle

Hohenwerfen Castle (Deutsch: Festung Hohenwerfen), also known as Erlebnisburg (literally: "Castle of Experience") is an amazing castle in Austria. The castle is located high above the Austrian town of Werfen in the Salzach valley, approximately 40 km in the south of Salzburg city. It stands at one of two majestic mountains of Berchtesgaden and Tennengebirgs, which are part of the Alps.

This is a file from the fotowelt.chip.de, Author: Schelbert  

December 7, 2012

Eltz Castle

Eltz Castle (Deutsch: Burg Eltz) is one of the most famous and beautiful medieval castles in Germany. It is nestled in the hills above the Moselle River between Koblenz and Trier, Germany. Eltz castle, the Palace of Bürresheim and the Castle of Lissingen are the only castles on the left bank of the Rhine in Rhineland-Palatinate which have never been destroyed. These castles were preserved even during wars 17th and 18th centuries and the French Revolution.
This is a file from www.flickr.com, Author: Jaeger-Meister 

November 26, 2012

Gravensteen

Gravensteen Castle (Dutch: Gravensteen, literally: "castle of the count") is a medieval castle in Ghent, Belgium. It is the only medieval castle in Flanders, defensive system of which has remained virtually untouched to this day.
This is a file from www.rowing-vvr.be
The present castle was built in 1180 by Count Philip of Alsace (was Count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191). The counts of Flanders had built castles in the principal cities of the county. Because they had to maintain law and order, they continuously had to move from one city to the other. Therefore, they disposed of a castle in most cities where they wanted to stay for a few months. The castle of Ghent is the only one which survived the centuries more or less intact.

November 16, 2012

Bran Castle

Bran Castle (Romanian: Castelul Bran; German: Törzburg; Hungarian: Törcsvár), also known as Dracula’s Castle (although it is one among several locations linked to the Dracula legend, including Poenari Castle and Hunyad Castle), is a national monument and landmark in Romania. The castle is situated near Bran and in the immediate vicinity of Braşov on the border between Transylvania and Wallachia.
This is a file from www.flickr.com, Author: bugaboy00 

November 12, 2012

Château de Sarzay


The Château de Sarzay is a 14th century castle in the village of Sarzay in the Indre département of France. Château de Sarzay is one of the chateaus of the southern Loire Valley, which although close to a tributary of the Indre, but already adjacent to the foothills of the Massif Central. Like many buildings of this type in the Auvergne and Limousin, Sarzay had a rectangular form, flanked by 25-meter cylindrical high towers. The château was protected by two outer walls, and 38 towers. In the first period there was also a moat with three drawbridges and a 4-acre pond.

This is a file from Wikimedia Commons,


November 8, 2012

Burg Steen

Burg Steen, also known as Het Steen, (Dutch: Steen, literally: "Stone") is a part of the medieval fortress on the right bank of the Scheldt River in the old city centre of Antwerp, Belgium.

This is a file from www.flickr.com, Author: mariannegreg
The castle was built between 1200 and 1225 after the Viking incursions in the early Middle Ages.  It was originally called the Antwerp Burcht (citadel). At that time, it was the first large stone building in Antwerp. Unfortunately, the building, preserved to this day, is only a small part of the old fortress. The old fortress covered an area in several times larger. Inside that castle were important institutions such as the Vierschaar (the former courthouse), St. Walburgis Church, the Fish Market, warehousing and storage facilities and a number of other buildings. The entire complex was surrounded by a massive defensive wall. The fortress made it possible to control the access to the Scheldt River and to guard the entrance to the city from the direction of the Western Scheldt.

November 5, 2012

Löwenburg

Löwenburg (German: Löwenburg, literally: "Lion Castle") is one of the most beautiful castles in the world. The castle is located in the German town of Kassel, in the Wilhelmshöhe Mountain Park, on the Bavaria mountain, altitude 92 meters above sea level.

This is a file from www.flickr.com, Author: Ela2007 
From a distance it appears to the visitor as a romantic Gothic castle from the Middle Ages.  However, it was built between 1793 and 1801 at the time when the era of construction of the formidable and fortified castles in Germany was ended a few centuries ago. William IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, inspired by the medieval romance, commissioned the architect Heinrich Christoph Jussow build the castle, which can be compared with the English medieval palaces.

November 1, 2012

Kalmar Castle


Kalmar Castle (Swedish: Kalmar slott) is one of the most significant creations of Northern European fortification art of the Renaissance. The castle is located in the small town of Kalmar in the province Småland on the southern coast of Sweden.
This is a file from geeson.deviantart.com, Author: geeson 
The area around Kalmar has been inhabited since ancient times. At the diggings have been found traces of ancient burials of the stone age. However, the first mentions of this place belong to the 11th century. According to a medieval folk tale, the Norwegian patron Saint Olav had moved his ships to Kalmar strait. There are very few written sources of this event, but archaeologists found a stone, in which there is mention of this strait.

October 31, 2012

Château d'If

The Château d'If is a fortress (later a prison) located on the island of If in the Frioul Archipelago (L`Archipel du Frioul) situated in the Mediterranean Sea. The Frioul Archipelago consists of four islands, all reaching 200 hectares. The island of If, adjacent to the islands Pomeg and Raton, is the smallest island of the archipelago of Friuli (at the widest point the island reaches 180 m, and the maximum length is 300 m) and is located about a mile offshore in the Bay of Marseille in southeastern France.
This is a file from website neijazeugme.deviantart.com, Author: NeijaZeugme 

October 30, 2012

Khotyn Fortress

The Khotyn Fortress (Ukrainian: Хотинська фортеця, Polish: twierdza w Chocimiu, Turkish: Hotin Kalesi, Romanian: Cetatea Hotinului) is a fortification complex located on the right bank of the Dniester River in Khotyn town, Chernivtsi Oblast’, Ukraine.
This is a file from funnyfunda.com
The beginning of Khotyn Fortress goes back to the Khotyn Fort. The fort was built in the 10th century by Prince Vladimir Sviatoslavich as one of the border fortifications of southwestern Kyivan Rus', after he added the land of present-day Bukovina into his control. The Khotyn fort, which eventually was rebuilt into a fortress, was located on important transportation routes, which connected Scandinavia and Kyiv with the Lowlands, Podillia, Genoese and Greek colonies on the Black Sea, through Moldavia and Wallachia, on the famous "trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks". The fortification was built on a rocky cape, which was formed by the high right bank of the Dniester River and the valley of small its tributary. The cape was called "Khotin" from the Ukrainian verb "хотiти" (literally "to want") because the cape was desirable and safe place for the ancient settlers.

October 27, 2012

Bohus Fortress

Bohus Fortress (also known as Baahus or Bagahus; Norwegian: Båhus festning; Swedish: Bohus fästning) is a Swedish fortress, which is located on 40 meter cliff in Bagaholmen Island, Kungälv city, Sweden, north east from Hisingen where the Göta river splits into two branches (20 kilometres north of Gothenburg).

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, License 

Unfortunately, it is unknown, when Kungälv, or Konghelle was founded. However, Konghelle appears in the Icelandic sagas and the famous storyteller Snorri Sturluson actually visited the town himself. It is believed that Konghelle settlement existed already in the 9th century near the river with rich agriculture. In the beginning of 12th century, the Norwegian King Sigurd I Magnusson (Sigurd Jorsalfare/Sigurd the Crusader), who reigned AD 1103 – 1130, favored Konghelle and used it as the capital of Norway and an important power base.

October 26, 2012

Palace of Pena

Palace of Pena (Portuguese: Palácio Nacional da Pena) is the most complete and striking example of Portuguese architecture of Romanticism. It is located on one of the rocky peaks in São Pedro de Penaferrim, municipality of Sintra, Portugal and fits perfectly into the rocky landscape covered with emerald streams of greenery.
This is a file from www.liveinternet.ru, Authors: manzanara and at_no_time
The palace's history started in the Middle Ages when a chapel dedicated to Our Lady of Pena was built on the top of the hill above Sintra. According to tradition, the construction occurred after an apparition of the Virgin Mary. In 1493, King John II, accompanied by his wife Queen Leonor, made a pilgrimage to the site to fulfill a vow. His successor, King Manuel I, was also very fond of this sanctuary, and ordered the construction there of a monastery, which was donated to the Order of Saint Jerome. For centuries Pena was a small, quiet place for meditation, housing a maximum of eighteen monks.

October 20, 2012

Soroca castle

Soroca castle (Romanian: Cetatea Soroca) is a historic fortress in the Republic of Moldova, in the modern-day city of Soroca.
This is a file from website  soroki-navsegda.ucoz.ru
Soroca city has its origin from the medieval Genoese trade post Olchionia, or Alchona. In the 15th century, on this site, the Moldavian Prince Stephen the Great (Romanian: Ştefan cel Mare) built a wooden and earthen fortress, called Saraci (Moldavian: sarac, i.e., poor, hapless, orphan, as the locals for a long time were been forced to hide from the persecution of the Crimean Tatars in the nearby caves). In the 18th century the name was changed to the Soroca.

October 16, 2012

Kreuzenstein Castle

Kreuzenstein Castle  (also known as Burg Kreuzenstein) is the beautiful castle of 19th century,  located north of the village of Leobendorf, east of the city of Stockerau in the province of Lower Austria in Austria.

This is a file from www.ermaktravel.com
Schloss Kreuzenstein is first mentioned in the 12th century. The oldest part of the Kreuzenstein Castle dates back to the 1115. It is believed that the first name of the castle "Grizanstein» comes from Dietrich von Grizanstaine which was the owner of the castle in the 12th century. 

October 13, 2012

Trakai Island Castle


Trakai Island Castle (Lithuanian: Trakų salos pilis) is an island castle located in Trakai, Lithuania on an island in Lake Galvė. The castle is sometimes referred to as "Little Marienburg".

This is a file from wikimapia.org, Author: ArnoutSteenhoek
According to the chronicle legend, after a successful hunt, Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas  found a great place near the town of Kernave and decided to erect a castle on it and move the capital here. In the second half of the 14th century, here in the Old Traki (Syaneyi Trakai), was standing stone castle. Rules to them in 1337-1382 son of Gediminas Kęstutis. Around 1350 in the castle was born Vytautas. In 1375, Kęstutis moved his capital from Old Traki to New Traki, which was protected by Lake Galvė. The construction of Trakai Island Castle was related to the expansion and strengthening of the Trakai Peninsula Castle. Castle in the Old Traki in 1391 was destroyed and never rebuilt. In 1405, a plot of land with the remains of the old castle was given to the Benedictine monks. The monastery stands on the old citadel.

October 8, 2012

Chillon Castle

Chillon Castle  (France: Château de Chillon) is located on the shore of Lake Geneva in the commune of Veytaux, at the eastern end of the lake, 3 km from Montreux, Switzerland. The castle consists of 100 independent buildings that were gradually connected to become the building as it stands now.
This is a file from Wikimedia Commons, Author    Bolla Ugo, License
The first written record of the castle is in 1160 or 1005, although, according to some sources, the first fortification on the site of the present Chillon Castle was built around the 9th century. Its goal was to protect the road running from Avenches to Italy through the pass Grand-Saint-Bernard along Lake Geneva. 

October 6, 2012

Neuschwanstein Castle

Neuschwanstein Castle (German: Schloss Neuschwanstein, [nɔʏˈʃvaːnʃtaɪn], literally: "The new swan rock") is a 19th-century Romanesque Revival palace on a rugged hill above the village of Hohenschwangau near Füssen in southwest Bavaria, Germany.
This is a file from the allcastle.info
Neuschwanstein Castle stands on the site of two castles, Vorderhohenschwangau Castle and Hinterhohenschwangau Castle. For technical reasons the ruined castles could not be integrated into the plan. In 1868, the ruins of the medieval twin castles were demolished completely; the remains of the old keep were blown up. Furthermore, King Ludwig II ordered to lower the plateau of about 8 m by an explosion rocks at this place and thus create space for the construction of "fairy palace." After the construction of the road and pipeline 5 September 1869 the foundation was laid for the construction of a huge castle.  Construction of the castle was requested court architect Eduard Riedel. The building design was drafted by the master of Munich Christian Jank.

October 3, 2012

Predjama Castle


Predjama Castle (Slovene: Predjamski Grad or Grad Predjama, German: Höhlenburg Lueg, Italian: Castel Lueghi) is a Renaissance castle built within a cave mouth in southwestern Slovenia. It is located approximately 11 kilometres on north west of the town Postojna.
Predjama Castle was probably built in the 12th century but was first mentioned in the year 1274 with the German name Luegg. It was built in an area that was controlled by the town of Aquilea but was contested by the Counts of Gorizia. The castle was built under a natural rocky arch high in the stone wall to make access to it difficult. In those times the castle was called Jama Castle (Jama translates to cave).It was later acquired and expanded by the Luegg noble family, also known as the Knights of Adelsberg (the German name of Postojna).

September 29, 2012

Olavinlinna

Olavinlinna (Swedish: "Olofsborg") or St. Olaf's Castle is a 15th century castle located on a rocky island between the lakes Haapavesi and Pihlajavesi connected to the Bay of Lake Saimaa in northern Finland in Savonlinna Provincial Cham.
Attribution: MiracetiLicense
 Construction of the castle was begun in 1475 by the Danish Knight Erik Axelsson Tott, who had engaged in strengthening the Vyborg Castle. Erik Axelsson Tott decided that the powerful fortification should be build to protect the strategically important Savo region. The castle was supposed to repel Russian attacks from the east and to guarantee the control of the Savo region for the Swedish Crown. Initially, the castle was named  Nyslott (Swedish: New Castle), then it was named Olavinlinna, Castle of St. Olaf, in honor of the Catholic saint of the 11th century, especially in Scandinavia revered as the patron saint of the Knights.

September 27, 2012

Castel Nuovo


Castel Nuovo (Italian: "New Castle") is a medieval castle in the city of Naples, southern Italy. The castle is also known as Maschio Angioino, named to honor King Charles I of Anjou (Charles I of Naples), by order of which it was built.
Before the accession of Charles I of Anjou to the throne in 1266, the capital of the Kingdom of Naples was Palermo. But there was a royal residence in Naples called Castel Capuano. However, when the capital was moved to Naples, Charles of Anjou ordered the construction of a new castle, not far from the sea, built to house the court. The work, carried out by French architects Pierre de Chaulnes and Stone Angincour began in 1279 and was completed three years later in 1282. From the very beginning it was called "Castrum Novum" to distinguish it from the older castles dell'Ovo and Capuano.

September 23, 2012

Caernarfon Castle

Caernarfon Castle is one of the most impressive castles of King Edward I of England. The castle is located in the town of Caernarfon in Gwynedd, north-west Wales. It is surrounded by the waters of Menai Strait, which separates the island  Anglesey from North Wales.
This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, Author: Herbert Ortner,  License
The first fortifications at Caernarfon were built by the Romans. Their military settlement (Castrum), which they called Segontsy, located on the outskirts of modern Carnarvon. Settlement was by the River Seiont, which flows into the Strait of Menai. The city's name is derived from the Carnarvon Roman settlement. Welsh town was known as «y gaer yn Arfon», which means "the stronghold in the land over against Môn"; Môn is the Welsh name of the island of Anglesey. Little is known about the fate of Segontium and its associated civilian settlement after the Romans departed from Britain in the early 5th century.

September 13, 2012

Hunyad Castle

The Hunyad Castle or Castelul Corvinilor is the family nest of the feudal house Hunyadi on a rock above the small river Zlaşti in southern Transylvania, in the modern Romanian city of Hunedoara.

Attribution: Koponya25, License
Name:   Hunyad Castle or  
              Castelul Corvinilor

Country:         Romania

City:                Hunedoara


Style:   Gothic-Renaissance castle

Renaissance Material: Brick 


Construction: 1307-1315

Condition: restored and opened to the public 

Hunyad Castle was built by King Charles I of Hungary, after his visit in Temesvár (Timişoara), Kingdom of Hungary (now Romania), over the site of an older Roman fortification in 1307. The King decided to set up residence there. The building, probably built by Italian builders, was finished in 1315 and in 1316 the King was already established in the new castle, where he lived almost eight years. The last document signed by him in Timisoara dated June 15, 1323. That fortress had an oval shape, and the only defensive tower was located in the north wing, while on the south side of her closed brick wall. 
Attribution: Dasone, License 
In 1409, the castle and the surrounding land were given to John Hunyadi's father, Voyk, by Sigismund, king of Hungary, as severance. As one of the most important properties of John Hunyadi, the castle was transformed during his reign. It became a sumptuous home, not only a strategically enforced point. John Hunyadi implemented two phases of restructuring and expansion of the castle and its surroundings. The first phase took place in 1441-1446.  And during that time it was built seven towers: four round and three triangular. The second stage took place in 1446-1453. During that time, the chapel was laid, as well as it was built the main hall and the south wing with outbuildings.
After John's death, the castle passed to his son Matthias (Matthias Corvinus). Under his order was built loggia in the north wing (also known as the "Loggia Matthias"), completed a chapel and continued work on decoration the castle. By that time castle has become a rare facility in Eastern Europe, combining the elements in its appearance late Gothic and early Renaissance.
Severe destruction of the castle Corwin were caused by a fire in 1854, which effectively destroyed the monument of architecture. Restoration work was carried out about a hundred years. The current castle is the result of a fanciful restoration campaign undertaken after a disastrous fire and many decades of total neglect. It is a large and imposing building with tall, peaked and diversely colored roofs, towers and myriad windows and balconies adorned with stone carvings. The castle fully corresponds to fabulous views of castles. The current look of the castle bears little resemblance to the one that was in the reign of John Hunyadi, however, despite all the changes and reconstruction remained intact the hall of honor "Neboisa", which means "Do not be afraid" in Serbian language. This room is kept the same shape as six centuries ago. 

In the castle yard, near the 15th-century chapel, there is a well 30 meters deep. According to the legend, this fountain was dug by twelve Turkish prisoners to whom liberty was promised if they reached water. After 15 years they succeeded and produced water, but their captors did not keep their promise. They say that after that inscription appeared on the well: "you have water, but not soul".
Hunedoara is a mandatory destination of those who travel Romania on the trail of Count Dracula. It is said that the legendary Vlad III of Wallachia (commonly known as Vlad the Impaler) lived here for a while, and as a prisoner. Because of these links, the Hunyad Castle is sometimes mentioned as a source of inspiration for Bram Stoker's Castle Dracula.
Interiors in its original form to this day have not been preserved, but the castle is a museum, which exhibits a great deal to tell us about medieval life. This are archaeological finds, ancient books, decorative arts and arms. In the halls regularly holds temporary exhibitions and concerts, including early music. In February 2007, Hunyad Castle played host to the British paranormal television program Most Haunted Live! for a three-night live investigation into the spirits reported to be haunting the castle. Results were inconclusive.

In the preparation of this article, were partially used materials of website: www.wikipedia.org, www.liveinternet.ru  and travellingboard.net

September 10, 2012

Castle of Coca

Castle of Coca or Castillo de Coca is considered to be one of the best castles in Spain. The castle is located in the city of Coca (Roman "Cauca"; birthplace of Roman Emperor Theodosius) in the province of Segovia, which lies in flat and wooded lands of the center of Spain, in the autonomous community of Castile and Leon. 
This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, Author: Ignacio Cobos Rey, License
It is an excellent example of the Gothic and Mudéjar styles. It's made up of two square baileys separated by a passageway. Both show polygonal towers at the corners. The castle is surrounded by a fortress double wall of width of 2.5 meters with lots of corridors and doors, as well as a deep dry moat. It is considered to be the highest example of brick military architecture with Mudejar filigree work.

September 6, 2012

Muiden Castle


Muiden Castle, also known as Muiderslot, is one of the better known castles in the Netherlands. It is located at the mouth of the river Vecht, some 15 kilometers southeast of Amsterdam, in Muiden, where it flows into what used to be the Zuiderzee. It is a relatively small castle, measuring 32 by 35 metres with brick walls well over 1.5 metres thick. A large moat surrounded the castle.
Author    Edi Weissmann from Amsterdam, Netherlands, License
Name: Muiden Castle


Country: Netherlands
Province: North Holland
City: Muiden

Type: Water castle
Material: Brick 
Start of construction:1370

Condition:  opened to the public
Website: www.muiderslot.nl







The history of the Muiderslot begins in 1280, when Count Floris V of Holland built a stone castle on this site to control the estuary of the river Vecht into the former Zuidersea. The River Vecht was the trade route to Utrecht, one of the most important trade towns of that age. The castle was used to collect a tribute on the traders. In 1296 Floris was abducted by rebelling noblemen and was held prisoner in Muiden Castle. They fled under the threat of a siege in the direction of Utrecht, taking Floris with them. During their escape they murdered Floris with their swords. Taking into account the death of Count Floris, and the fact that in the castle was not his immediate successor (son of Count Floris was in England), the castle was besieged by Willem van Mechelen, bishop of Utrecht. After seizing the castle he destroyed it.

September 1, 2012

Carcassonne

Carcassonne is a fortified French town in the Aude department, of which it is the prefecture, in the former province of Languedoc. It is divided into the fortified Cité de Carcassonne and the more expansive lower city, the ville basse. Carcassone was founded by the Visigoths in the fifth century, though the Romans had fortified the settlement earlier.
Author    Jondu11, License
First signs of settlement in this region have been dated to about 3500 BC, but the hill site of Carsac – a Celtic place-name that has been retained at other sites in the south – became an important trading place in the 6th century BC. The Volcae Tectosages fortified the oppidum.

August 29, 2012

Bunratty Castle

Bunratty Castle (Irish: Caisleán Bhun Raithe, meaning "Castle at the Mouth of the Ratty") is a large tower house in County Clare, Ireland. It lies in the centre of Bunratty village, by the N18 road between Limerick and Ennis, near Shannon Town and its airport. The name Bunratty, Bun Raite (or possibly, Bun na Raite) in Irish, means the 'bottom' or end of the 'Ratty' river. This river, alongside the castle, flows into the nearby Shannon estuary. From the top of the castle, one can look over to the estuary and the airport.

Name: Bunratty Castle
Location: Bunratty village

County: Clare 
Country: Ireland

Material: Brick 
Built: 1475

Restored    1954
Condition: restored and opened to the public 

The first dwellings to occupy the site, in 970 were part of a Viking trading camp. In 1250, Norman lord Robert de Muscegros built here the first defensive fortifications, i.e., the earthen embankment with the installed powerful wooden tower. The first stone castle was built later, when the lot was acquired by Thomas De Clare. At this time Bunratty town had grown to a population of 1,000.

August 26, 2012

Hohenzollern Castle

Majestic castle Hohenzollern, proudly stands on top of a mountain at an altitude of Hohenzollern 855 meters and is located near the settlements and Bisingen Hechingen, in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg. Castle is considered the preserve of the Hohenzollern dynasty,  the dynasty, which towered over the Middle Ages and rule Prussia and Brandenburg until the end of World War II.  
Author A. Kniesel , License
The current castle has undergone three stages of construction. First medieval castle fortress is mentioned in 1267, but it is assumed that it was built earlier, in XI century. In 1423 the castle was besieged by the troops of the imperial cities of Swabia. May 15, 1423, the castle was taken and destroyed. From the first castle remained only written record. 

August 25, 2012

Dover Castle

Dover Castle is one of the most powerful of castles of Western Europe. Many centuries, it is the guardian of the shortest sea route from England to the Continent. Its location on the shore of the Strait of Pas-de-Calais, between Britain and France gave Dover castle of great strategic importance. For a long time he was considered the "key to England" due to its strategic position on the island.

Attribution: Ron Strutt, License
Castle began to exist immediately before the beginning of our era. Moat protecting the castle, was dug up in the prehistoric Iron Age. After the arrival of the British Isles by the Romans in the 1st century AD on the site 
of the present town of Dover was founded a fortified settlement. Dover began to develop as a Roman port. To do this, in 50 AD, two lighthouses were built: one here and one in the Western Heights. Lighthouse, located on the territory of the castle, has been preserved to this day. In the Anglo-Saxon period, the lighthouse was attached to the church, and he began to serve the bell tower.

August 23, 2012

Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork

Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork (also known as the Order Castle Marienburg) Order Castle Marienburg served as the residence of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order from 1309 to 1456 years. It is the largest Middle Ages brick castle in the world, one of the standards of the brick Gothic, UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Name:     Castle Marienburg
Country:  Poland  
Location: Pomeranian Voivodeship, Malbork 
Architectural style: Gothic

Material: Brick 

Start of construction: 1274 

Condition: restored and opened to the public 
In 1274, castle in honor of the Virgin Mary was built on the bank of Nogat River (mouth of the Vistula River) by the Teutonic Knights. In 1309, the Grand Master of the Order moved to the castle from Venice. In the 14th century, the castle was rebuilt and extended many times. Inside the castle walls was an area of 210 thousand square meters, and the number of inhabitants of the castle in the best years was close to three thousand.

Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle.

Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle is a former Ruthenian-Lithuanian castle and a later three-part Polish fortress erected in the castle site, located in the historic city of Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine, in the historic region of Podolia in the western part of the country.It was first mentioned in 1374 in a document from the Prince George Koriatovicha who owned at the time of Podolia. Archaeological research indicates that there was a castle in the tenth and thirteenth centuries  The fortress consisted of Kamianets-Podilskyi's Old Town fortified by King Casimir IV Jagiellon, the Old Castle rebuilt by Kings Sigismund I the Old and Stephen Bathory, and the New Castle founded by Kings Sigismund III Vasa and Wladyslaw IV Vasa, and until the 1793 Second Partition of Poland it was one of the strongest fortresses in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
The castle was built on top of a peninsula carved out by the winding Smotrych River, forming a natural defense system for the castle and Kamianets-Podilskyi's Old Town neighborhood; a bridge over the river forms the only entrance to the castle. The castle's name is attributed to the root word kamin', from the Slavic word for stone.

Name:    Kamianets-Podilskyi                           castle 
Country: Ukraine 
Location: Khmelnytskyi Region,  
                 Kamianets-Podilskyi
Architectural style: Gothic,
                 Renaissance 
Material: Brick 

Start of construction: pre-13th century 

Condition: restored and opened to the public 
Initially, the fortress was built to protect the bridge connecting the medieval town with the mainland. Its location on a strategic transport crossroad in Podolia and made the castle a prime target for foreign invaders, however, who rebuilt the castle to suit their own needs, adding to its multicultural architectural diversity. In spite of the many architectural and engineering changes to the original castle structure, the Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle still forms a coherent architectural design, being one of the few medieval constructions in Ukraine that is relatively well preserved. It is the most recognized landmark of the city, serving as an important regional and national tourist attraction.
Author: Andy Shal

Lutsk castle is one of the most powerful fortresses of Volyn Region.

Lutsk High Castle, also known as Lubart's Castle,  is the main historic monument of the capital of Volyn. is the main historic monument of the capital of Volyn region, Ukraine. It began its life in the mid-14th century as the fortified seat of Gediminas' son Liubartas (Lubart), the last ruler of united Galicia-Volhynia. It is the most prominent landmark of Lutsk. Another city castle, built by the Czartoryski family starting from the 14th century, is now a ruin.
Author Modulo, License
Name:   Lutsk Castle or  
              Lubart's Castle 

Country: Ukraine 

Location: Volyn region, Lutsk

Architectural style: Gothic,

Renaissance Material: Brick 

Start of construction: 1350

Condition: restored and opened to the public 
The Kievan town of Luchesk had a wooden wall as early as 1075, when Boleslaw the Brave laid siege to it for six months. Yury Dolgoruky failed to take Lutsk after a six-weeks siege in 1149. In 1255, the walls of Lutsk were stormed by Jochi's grandson Kuremsa.
The current castle, towering over the Styr River, was built mostly in the 1340s, although some parts of the earlier walls were used. It repelled sieges by numerous potentates, including Casimir the Great (1349), Jogaila (1431), and Sigismund Kestutaitis (1436).